Heather Grantham, PhD

Associate Professor of Otolaryngology


Deaf Education



Degree Program

Master of Science in Deaf Education (MSDE)


ED 234: Introduction to Speech and Hearing Sciences and Disorders

PACS 434: Typical Language Development

PACS 4515: Language Instruction for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

PACS 4525: Foundations of Literacy Theory and Instruction

PACS 455: Education Curriculum II

PACS 519: Psychosocial and Educational Foundations of Deafness

PACS 551: Research Seminar (MSDE)

PACS 558: Pre-Service Teacher Preparation

Additional Titles

  • Associate Professor of Otolaryngology

Mailing Address


  • BA (Art History): Emory University (1995)
  • MED (Education of the Deaf): Smith College (1998)
  • PhD (Psychology): Washington University in St. Louis (2009)

Research Interests

Language and literacy development in children with cochlear implants


Grantham, H. (in press). Spelling: Why explicit instruction is a critical component of literacy intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. In S. Easterbrooks & H. Dostal (Eds.), Oxford Handbook on Deaf Studies in Literacy.

Grantham, H. (2019). Students with Hearing Impairments. In A. Turnbull, R. Turnbull, M. Wehmeyer, K. Shogren (Eds.) Exceptional Lives: Practice, Progress, and Dignity in Today’s Schools (385-405). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.

Kruemmling, B., Hayes, H., & Smith, D. (2017). Enriching doctoral-level preparation programs through a nationwide consortium model: The National Leadership Consortium in Sensory Disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 111, 557—567.

Hayes, H. & Krauss, C. (2016). Early literacy skills in children who are deaf of hard of hearing: Building a solid foundation for later success. Volta Voices, 23, 24–27.

Hayes, H., Treiman, R., & Geers, A. E. (2014). Spelling in deaf children with cochlear implants: Implications for instruction. In B. Arfé, J. Dockrell, & V. Berninger (Eds.) Writing development and instruction in children with hearing, speech, and oral language difficulties. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hayes, H., Kessler, B., & Treiman, R. (2011). Spelling of deaf children who use cochlear implants. Scientific Studies of Reading. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2010.528480

Geers, A., & Hayes, H. (2011). Reading, writing, and phonological processing skills of adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience. Ear and Hearing, 32, 49S-59S.

Hayes, H. (2010). A distinctive program: Deaf education studies at the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences (PACS) at Washington University School of Medicine. Volta Review, 110, 271-278.

Geers, A.E., Moog, J.S., Biedenstein, J., Brenner, C., & Hayes, H. (2009). Spoken language scores of children using cochlear implants compared to hearing age-mates at school entry. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14, 371-385.

Hayes, H., Geers, A.E., Treiman, R., & Moog, J.S. (2009). Receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants: Achievement in an intensive auditory-oral educational setting. Ear and Hearing, 30, 128-135.

Hayes, H., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2006). Children use vowels to help them spell consonants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 94, 27-42.

Hayes, H., Kessler, B., & Treiman, R. (2005). English spelling: Making sense of a seemingly chaotic writing system. The International Dyslexia Association Perspectives, 31 (3), 8-10.